In the first installment of our understanding marine electricity series, 12-Volt Basics for Boaters, we took a good look at the “players” that interact with all things electrical – volts, amperes, and ohms. In this installment we’ll drill down a bit deeper and take a closer look at what’s represented by the ohm – the measurement unit for electrical resistance.
Excessive electrical resistance is the biggest single enemy onboard boats, at least as far as electrical system performance is concerned. In order to combat resistance, you, as a boat owner, need to know what causes it, how to measure for it using your multimeter, and how to mitigate it.
Causes of Resistance
In the marine environment there are three primary areas where excessive electrical resistance can crop up.
From the circuit design perspective, we need to consider wire sizing right from the beginning. Wire that’s too small for the amount of amperage we need to push through it to the appliance in question is going to create excessive resistance and impact the performance of the circuit. A motor that can’t possibly deliver the rpm and designed torque needed for its purpose is a good example.
In the case of shore power, we still see quite a few boats entering the US from Europe that have been poorly “converted” from the European 240-volt, 50 Hz electrical service to the North American 120-volt, 60 Hz service. Too often, the plug receptacle assemblies aboard are simply replaced without any regard for the wire gauge size behind them. Wire sized to supply voltage at 240-volt levels will be roughly half the size it needs to be to safely carry the amount of electrical current required at 120 volts. We see this major flaw on brand-new boats, so beware.
Exposure to salt water is a major cause for corrosion at buss bars and electrical termination points. Drip loops, corrosion-inhibiting sprays, and enclosures designed to keep electrical components and terminations dry go a long way toward minimizing problems due to saltwater exposure.
Poor installation, meaning, among other things, loose wire, low-quality wire, and faulty cable termination points, is probably the most common cause of excessive electrical resistance on boats. Using incorrect terminals for the task at hand, or loose friction-type connectors, or the wrong tools to make crimp connections, will make it much more likely that your circuit will be compromised. This explains why the ABYC (American Boat and Yacht Council) E-11 Electrical Standard has much to say about wire sizing, acceptable terminal types, and pull-test requirements for friction and crimp connectors.
The quality of electrical connections on your boat can be verified using a simple digital multimeter set to the DC volts scale. Why measure volts instead of ohms? There are two main reasons. First, although ohms are indeed the unit of measurement for resistance, it’s impossible to know what the exact measurement values should be unless someone gives you a specification to work with. Engine manufacturers, for example, might provide ohm values for things like coils and engine instrument sending units, and there are often values to be found in shop manuals and engineering standards—but no one provides resistance values for most of the electrical circuits aboard boats. Second, it’s easy to measure for excessive voltage drop, which is a direct indicator of excessive resistance. In addition, acceptable maximum levels of voltage drop are given within ABYC and USCG standards, so we do have a good set of general values to utlize.
Measurements for Excessive Voltage Drop, or Excessive Resistance
Let’s learn how to quantify excessive voltage drop using industry standards and a simple digital multimeter.
The ABYC defines two levels of voltage drop for battery-powered electrical circuits on boats—three percent and 10 percent. The three percent standard is reserved for “mission-critical” circuits. These are further defined as primary conductors running from the boat’s battery to the DC distribution panel. It identifies as three percent circuits ones used for navigation lights, bilge blowers, and mission-critical electronics like VHF radios, radar, GPS, and depthsounders. (A circuit for your iTunes player would not be considered mission-critical.) All other on-board circuits can be wired to a maximum 10 percent voltage-drop standard. So, to determine if an entire circuit meets the specification, all you need to do is follow the simple steps outlined here:
Begin by measuring the voltage across the battery terminals as shown in the photo at the top of the article. Only do this after the battery has been allowed to sit for at least 12 hours, not connected to a battery charger or with the engine running. Record your reading. Let’s say its 13.2 volts.
Next turn on the switch for the circuit you want to check, a cabin light, for example, one of the 10 percent circuits. Connect your meter as shown in Fig. 1. Let’s say you get a reading of 11.8 volts.
Now do the math to come up with a percentage value. 13.2 -11.8 = 1.4 volts. This circuit has “lost” 1.4 volts to resistance. Is that too much? Well, in this case divide 1.4 by the measured source voltage of 13.2 (1.4 / 13.2 = 0.106). Move the decimal two places to the right and you get 10.6 percent drop in that circuit. That’s excessive for the circuit.
Figures 2-4 show a simple experiment to illustrate voltage drop caused by resistance. In this case the voltage is produced by a 12-volt power supply that provides a constant 14 volts DC – about what you would find at your battery terminals with the engine running and the alternator charging the battery.
Fig. 2 shows the measurement with the probes of an auto-ranging multimeter touching the positive and negative terminals of the power supply. In Fig. 3 we’ve connected a 12-volt searchlight to the power supply with wires about the same size as those between the socket plug and the light. With the light switched on, we see a voltage drop of about three quarters of a volt, and we can assume that virtually all of this is coming from the use of the light itself. (A light, after all, is a resistive load.) Let’s do the math again: 14.01 – 13.28 = 0.73. Then 0.73 / 14.01 = .052. Move the decimal point and we get a 5.2 percent drop. That’s acceptable.
In Fig. 4 we’ve reconnected the searchlight to the power supply with wires significantly thinner than the ones between the light and its plug. Now the voltage in the circuit has dropped to 12.83 volts. This time the math tells us that with the light on there’s a total drop of 8.4 percent—close to unacceptable. In addition, those thin wires got quite warm to the touch while trying to send current to the demanding searchlight, and the light output was reduced.
Whether the culprit is corrosion, a loose connection, or undersized wire, the results are the same: The flow of the current is restricted, and not enough electricity can reach the equipment in question. The trick is to find the source of the excessive resistance. Again, in saltwater environments the problem is almost always found at a termination point, so start at the switch and work your way out toward the cabin light. But common-sense detective work also comes into play. For example, if you find an excessive voltage drop in a navigation light circuit, start at the outside light fixture, looking for the result of water intrusion that causes terminal corrosion.
To check for excessive voltage drop at a terminal, make sure the circuit is turned on and touch your multimeter probes across the connection. Remember that what you want to see is a reading near zero, indicating little or no resistance. If the measurement you get is the same as the total circuit voltage lost, then the connection you’re looking at is the entire culprit. It’s either corroded or loose for some reason. Clean or tighten the connection or replace the terminal as needed.
If the reading is a significant fraction of the voltage drop, let’s say 0.58 volts, the connection still needs attention, but you will need to continue your search at other termination points to find the location for the rest of the voltage lost and repair as needed.
Aside from termination points it’s also possible, as mentioned, that the wiring itself is too small for the task at hand. To see if a wire is too small, you’ll need to be able to gain access to both ends, typically at the output side of the switch on the main distribution panel and the other end at the appliance. Whatever voltage you read on your meter is the amount of voltage lost in that particular piece of wire or cable. If the reading is too high, then whoever designed the circuit cheated on the wire gauge size, basically engineering too much resistance into the circuit.
Checking your meter
When using your multimeter to measure ohms it’s a good idea to make sure the battery inside your meter has enough of a charge to give you a relevant reading. To do this, just turn the meter on, switch it to the ohms scale, and touch the two leads together. The meter should give you a zero reading, indicating no resistance, as shown in Fig. 5. Any reading other than zero indicates the battery(s) need replacement. Also, as with any multimeter readings, make sure your meter is either of the “self-scaling” variety (preferred) or that you are switched to a scale that puts your expected reading at 50 percent of the scale selected.
Again, remember that without a specification to use as your guide, ohm values are pretty irrelevant.
In loads that are designed intentionally to generate heat—an incandescent light bulb for example, or an electric water heater—electrical resistance does indeed have a place. But aboard your boat, resistance in electrical circuits that distribute power to your onboard devices should be regarded as an enemy to be kept at bay with good connections, adequate wiring, and smart troubleshooting.
For more on this topic, read 12-volt Basics for Boaters and All About Amperes in a Boat’s Electrical System.
Editor’s note: Ed Sherman is a leading authority on marine 12-volt systems and marine technical matters, and is a regular boats.com contributor. You can learn much more about DC systems from his two essential books on the subject: The 12-Volt Bible for Boats, 2ndEdition, and The PowerBoater’s Guide to Electrical Systems. Also visit Ed’s website --www.edsboattips.com – to read his advice and pet peeves on all sorts of marine systems and their installations.